Army of the Mississippi
From troops in the Western Department (Department No. 2) was created the Army of the Mississippi on March 5, 1862, and to General P. G. T. Beauregard was given the command. The army was divided into two corps headed by Major-Generals Leonidas Polk and Braxton Bragg. On March 29th, the army was joined to the Central Army of Kentucky with its three divisions, reserve corps, and cavalry. General A. S. Johnston, of the latter, took command of the Army of the Mississippi, that name having been preserved. Beauregard was second in command. The whole body was gathered at Corinth (except a force at Fort Pillow) in three corps, a reserve corps, and cavalry, and this was the organization that fought at Shiloh, when its strength was about forty thousand. The death of General Johnston placed the chief command upon General Beauregard, who was relieved June 27, 1862, by Major-General Hardee, and he, on August 15th, by Major-General Bragg. The army was transferred to Chattanooga in July. Major-General Polk had temporary command from September 28th to November 7, 1862, when, on the return of Bragg, the organization was called the Army of Tennessee.
General Albert Sidney Johnston (U. S. M. A. 1826) was born in Washington, Mason County, Kentucky, February 2, 1808. He served in the Black Hawk War and resigned his commission in 1884. Two years later, he entered the army of the Texan Republic as a private, soon becoming a brigadier-general, and in 1888 was commander-in-chief of the army of Texas and Secretary of War. Later, he reentered the United States Army and served in the Mexican War with distinction. As colonel, he conducted an expedition against the Mormons in Utah in 1857, which won him a brevet of brigadier-general. He remained in command in Utah until February, 1860. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was in command of the Department of the Pacific, but, by reason of his Southern sympathies, he resigned his commission to enter the Confederate service with the rank of general. He assumed command of Department No. 2, or Western Department, on September 15, 1861. In October he took immediate control of the Central Army of Kentucky, holding the line of Bowling Green, Kentucky, until February, 1862, against vastly superior numbers. On March 29, 1862, this army united with the Army of the Mississippi and Johns-ton took command of the new organization. He was killed on the battlefield of Shiloh, April 6, 1862, and his death was a stunning blow to the new Confederacy.
Third Corps- Army of the Mississippi
Major-General W.J. Hardee, who had been commander in northwestern Arkansas, was placed at the head of the Third Corps of the Army of the Mississippi on its reorganization, March 29, 1862. In August, the corps was merged in the Left Wing of the Army of the Mississippi.
Reserve Corps- Army of the Mississippi
Commanded by Major-General George B. Crittenden on March 29, 1862, and by Major-General J. C. Breckinridge after April 6th, and, later, by Brigadier-General Jones M. Withers. After Shiloh, and the siege of Corinth, the corps went to Louisiana and fought the battle of Baton Rouge, August 6, 1862, with the Federal troops under Brigadier-General Thomas Williams. Then it returned with Breckinridge to form the Army of Middle Tennessee and was merged in Hardee's (Second) Corps, Army of Tennessee, as the First Division, in November, 1862.
Source: "The Photographic History of the Civil War"
This Page last updated 03/28/04
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