Army of the Shenandoah
Major-General Kenton Harper, of the Virginia State forces, had collected about two thousand Virginia volunteers at Harper's Ferry as early as April 21, 1861. He was relieved on the 28th by Colonel Thomas J. Jackson, and the mustering in of volunteers went rapidly on. On May 24th, Brigadier-General Joseph E. Johnston assumed command of the troops, and on June 30th, there were 10,654 present for duty, in four brigades and cavalry. This was the force that opposed Major-General Patterson in the Valley, and it was known as the Army of the Shenandoah. It took part in the engagement at Falling Waters, July 2d, and the skirmishes near Bunker Hill and Charlestown. Strengthened with eight Southern regiments, this army started for Manassas, on July 18th, and took part in the first battle of Bull Run. After this, it formed a part of the Confederate Army of the Potomac.
General Joseph Eggleston Johnston (U. S. M. A. 1829) was born in Cherry Grove, near Farmville, Virginia, February 8, 1807. He served in the Black Hawk, Seminole, and Mexican wars, in the last of which he was twice severely wounded. He resigned his rank of brigadier-general to enter the Confederate service on April 20, 1861, and was given the rank of general in August. He was in command at Harper's Ferry after May 24th, and headed the Army of the Shenandoah. He brought his troops to Manassas and superseded Beauregard in the command, at Bull Run, joining his force to the Army of the Potomac. In command of the Army of Northern Virginia, he was severely wounded at Fair Oaks. In November, 1862, he was assigned to the head of the Department of Tennessee, but outside of an attempt to reliev Pemberton at Vicksburg in May, 1863, he saw no active service until he assumed command of the Army of Tennessee in December, 1863. He opposed Sherman during the Atlanta campaign of 1864, being superseded by General Hood on July 18th. His strategy was much criticised at the time, but it is now recognized that he displayed great ability during the campaign. In February, 1865, he was again given command of the Army of Tennessee, and attempted to prevent Sherman's advance through the Carolinas. Johnston's capitulation was agreed upon near Durham's Station, North Carolina, April 26, 1865. He was United States commissioner of railroads from 1885 to 1889. He died in Washington, March 21, 1891.
Source: "Photographic History of the Civil War"
This Page last updated 03/28/04
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